Police said the victim was seriously injured. The Year 11 student was airlifted to hospital, where he is being treated. Police have arrested a teenage boy in connection with the incident, which took place just after 8.40am on Grange Farm in Kesgrave.
An air ambulance landed at the scene and took off shortly before 10am.
Members of the public have been urged to avoid the area.
Two roads – Friends Walk and Through Jollys – have been sealed off and Ropes Drive has been partially closed.
Suffolk Police said: “A teenager has been arrested following a shooting in Kesgrave.
“Police were called just after 8.40am this morning, Monday 7 September, to reports of a shooting in Friends Walk.
“The victim – a 15-year-old boy – sustained serious injuries and was airlifted to Addenbrooke’s Hospital where he is receiving urgent medical attention.
“Officers investigating this incident have arrested a teenage boy and he has been taken into police custody for questioning.”
Assistant Chief Constable Rob Jones said: “Following this serious incident our priority is to keep everyone safe.
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“We have now made an arrest as part of the investigation and are working with our partners in Suffolk and our schools to ensure that everyone feels safe when they are collecting their children from school this afternoon.
“There will be more police officers on patrol and to provide reassurance in the area and I would ask for anyone with information about this incident to come forward.”
Any witnesses, or anyone with information about this incident, is asked to contact Suffolk Police on 101 quoting reference CAD 58 of 7 September.
Alternatively, contact the independent charity Crimestoppers 100% anonymously on 0800 555 111, or via their online form: www.crimestoppers-uk.org
Kesgrave High School said it was in contact with the police.
The school tweeted: “We have made aware by the police that there has been a serious incident involving one of our Year 11 students, on their way to school.
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“Students in school are safe and we are managing the situation in constant, close communication with the police.
“Students are to remain in school and will be kept safe in liaison with the police.
“Police will be present in the area and around the school throughout the school day.
“At the present time we are expecting students to be dismissed at the end of the school day, 3.20, as normal.”